The Potential for Ocean-Based Climate Action: Negative Emissions Technologies and Beyond

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An advantage of an ITS design is that it allowed for the statistical investigation of, for instance, the secular trend bias (i.e., the outcome may be increasing before the intervention) in a before-and-after study design. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the ProMes intervention in relation to the employees’ experience of work-related stress and in relation to work performance . The study used a before and after design, independent t-tests, and an interrupted time series analysis to examine whether the intervention had a substantial influence on work-related stress and objective workload. According to the independent t-test, our findings indicated that ProMes is not a cost–effective intervention since stress levels increased and efficiency decreased during the intervention, at extra cost to the primary healthcare unit.

  • Setting annual flow volume, peak flow rate, and annual pollutant loads of COD, SS, TN, and TP as evaluation factors, the ecological benefits of the four aggregate LID-BMPs were first evaluated for a selected subwatershed.
  • To estimate the total indirect cost of ProMes, we first summed the time requirements for all relevant activities, including all in-person activities, such as regular participation in design teams.
  • As a result, implementation efforts inside clinical care organizations must be thoroughly examined to assure their effectiveness.
  • Opportunity costs increase the cost of undertaking workplace health promotion, and thus should be recovered whenever possible.
  • Under resource a project – with too few staff or less qualified staff than the project requires – and you may make initial savings on wages.

U.S. Department of Energy Office of Federal Energy Management Programs —Conducts workshops on a variety of topics related to energy and water conservation. The Tri-Services Memorandum of Agreement on “Criteria/Standards for Economic Analyses/Life-Cycle Costing for MILCON Design” provides the guidelines for LCCA for DoD energy and non-energy projects. However, the MOA recommends that cash flows are discounted from the middle of each year rather than from the end of each year as are cash flows low-code App development of FEMP and OMB projects. To identify critical parameters, arrive at estimates of upper and lower bounds, or answer “what if” questions, simply change the value of each input up or down, holding all others constant, and recalculate the economic measure to be tested. In OMB and FEMP studies, all annually recurring cash flows (e.g., operational costs) are discounted from the end of the year in which they are incurred; in MILCON studies they are discounted from the middle of the year.


The Whitestone Research Facility Maintenance and Repair Cost Reference gives annualized costs for building systems and elements as well as service life estimates for specific building components. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division, provides access to a customized OM&R database for military construction. Digital process automation tools are used to automate and optimize end-to-end business workflows that include IT operations, infrastructure, data warehousing, and more. By optimizing the full workflow, organizations can streamline processes that are critical to customers and daily operations. Its effectiveness to moderate ocean climate drivers is also scored high given the close relationship between CO2 and ocean warming, acidification and sea level rise.

Low Cost-Effectiveness of the Development Process

For example, 40% of New York City’s urban runoff originates on private roofs and driveways (Heaney et al., 1999). Efforts to reduce urban runoff from private property can be very successful as evidenced by, for example, Portland’s Downspout Disconnect Program. Introduced in 1993, the program began offering residents of selected neighborhoods a US$ 53 incentive to redirect roof runoff to gardens and lawns.

Choose the most profitable pricing model

Product specifications may unexpectedly change due to upstream decisions about product features that continue to occur even though downstream product design activity has already begun . Thus, task uncertainty, defined by the number of exceptions and degree of improvisation required to complete internal tasks , is higher under concurrent than under traditional sequential NPD (Mitchell & Nault, 2007). Appendix C of Circular A-94, updated annually in February, provides the OMB discount rates.

Operating schedules and standards of maintenance vary from building to building; there is great variation in these costs even for buildings of the same type and age. It is therefore especially important to use engineering judgment when estimating these costs. Detailed cost estimates are prepared at the submittal stages of design (typically at 30%, 60%, and 90%) based on quantity take-off calculations. These estimates rely on cost databases such as the Commercial Unit Price Book (C-UPB) or the R. As experts in the tech field, the members of Forbes Technology Council have seen the evolution and benefits of low-code development firsthand. Below, 14 of them share one “pro” of low-code that they’re most excited about and why.


While there are no hard-and-fast rules about which model works best for every business or project, here are some facts and tips that may help you make an informed decision. When deciding what pricing model to adopt for your next project, you should consider the relationship between revenue streams and operating margins. Each type of revenue stream – time & materials (T&M), fixed-price , or retainer – comes with its own twist, which affects the operating margin. When measuring costs, use the same assumptions for workloads and resource utilization across all services. Looking at data from past projects can help you estimate the budget and resource allocation needed for future projects.

Low Cost-Effectiveness of the Development Process

The situation has been somewhat different for a few employees in the healthcare sectors, but for many of them in the profession, they have experienced a historic record number of deaths but at the same time had infected COVID-19 patients to attend to. With the significant changes in their daily routines and workload due to COVID-19, the mental health of healthcare workers is at risk because of the high levels of stress. In such stressful situations, maintaining satisfactory levels of employee performance in terms of the quality of healthcare services and patient safety can be challenging as well as undermined . Therefore, a health and safety culture is needed, especially mental health interventions at the individual, group, and organizational level among healthcare workers.

Target costing

We find that the nature of the design process moderates the relation between cost goal specificity and cost reduction performance. Life-cycle cost analysis is a method for assessing the total cost of facility ownership. It takes into account all costs of acquiring, owning, and disposing of a building or building system. LCCA is especially useful when project alternatives that fulfill the same performance requirements, but differ with respect to initial costs and operating costs, have to be compared in order to select the one that maximizes net savings. For example, LCCA will help determine whether the incorporation of a high-performance HVAC or glazing system, which may increase initial cost but result in dramatically reduced operating and maintenance costs, is cost-effective or not. Low-code platforms with the right devops tools can accelerate the development speed for automating tasks and end-to-end processes.

This technology makes it easier on those with limited experience to build applications for both web and mobile. API integration automation is the practice of using APIs to rapidly and reliably automate processes between disparate endpoints and systems. Low-code allows organizations to implement automation quickly, without adding expensive, highly-experienced developers. Low-code allows IT resources to create workflows quickly by using tested job steps, variables, templates and wizards.


If the company is interested in nonmonetary outcomes, and a CEA is performed, the net benefit framework can also be used to derive financial outcomes for decision-making. The decision rule then becomes, if the net benefit is negative, the intervention is considered not cost-effective; if it is positive, the intervention or program is considered ineffective. In this study, where the effect size was used, we still arrived at a converted monetary term to obtain an ACER by dividing the average cost of the intervention by the effect size . In this study, the outcome measures were quantitative in nature, lacking measures on the qualitative aspect of work.

Our results suggest that managers can potentially exploit an audit management tactic as simple as a diversion to a clean area to reduce auditors’ effectiveness at detecting earnings management. The implications of these findings for audit and decision making research are discussed. In devising the costs dimension, the following possible measurements are considered. Risk is usually an accidental event that a company cannot predict or control in advance.

Appendix A

They then came up with a series of suggestions for improving efficiency through moves such as changing the service level or detail required for certain tasks. In addition, activity-based optimization will identify issues such as an unclear distribution of work across multiple departments or business units. For example, although management may believe that all HR work is done in the HR unit, other units may, in fact, be doing their own recruiting or training. The existence of this sort of “double work” is often a clear indication that certain activities could be bundled in one area to increase efficiency.

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